Speed and Agility Development and Theory

Alberto Borges Moreno

Artículo publicado en el journal Revista de Entrenamiento Deportivo, Volumen 28, Número 1 del año .

Resumen

This paper discusses the development of speed and agility. It has become a literature review and several issues have been cited that directly affect the expression of these capabilities and their development, it is about energy systems, the nervous system and other interesting factors  like the neuromuscular composition and the incidence of fatigue as many factors implicate. The paper puts clear examples to train these skills and abilities; methods are considered, rest, work duration, number of repetitions, sets, rest between sets, intensity, motivation, density training and other factors related to the periodization of training annual stages to achieve the objectives of adequately train speed and agility, in the development of the text my experiences are indicated and match the criteria found in the literature.


Fig. 1 (“Detalle de la imagen de -Fuerza, Tamaño o Potencia? velocidad – Doble Karma,” n.d.)

INTRODUCTION

As we now and studies show success in sport is dependent on a number of training and environmental, technique, coordination, endurance, power, speed, flexibility, psychological skills, social skills, tactical skills, health, education of the athletes on the theory of sport, and cooperation in other socials facts, between other aspects.

Coordination CNS and skeletal muscle purpose perfect and easy movement, with excellent rime whether coordination is good or not depends largely on the interoperability of the muscle involved, that asses to develop better technical of the exercises; it is mean that there relationship between bough it is very important, coordination will be getting habitual with constant repetition of variation movements.

In my opinion a good coordination allows athletes to spend an action to another with ease, improves the speed of motor learning and lays the foundation for a continuous improvement of the technique, different physical capacity development need and it is important for the help that can offer to the technical improvement, this is one of the basic abilities and speed performance are illustrated on this paper.

Technical movement is a process or activity chain motion patterns to be applied in collectives and individual sports, independent individual’s persons, the methods of teaching technical may be different for sports and will only be resolved on the excellence of the methods movement theory, the easy way to do movement with the minimal effort and the exactly use of energy it is considerate the best technical (N.G. Ozolin and D.P. Markov, 1991).

The technique as a rational mode of execution of movements, allows higher saving and proper use of the available biological energy and proper inclination of the body to achieve maximum speed as quickly as possible, this proposition should be used on training designing.

“Speed, agility, and speed endurance are crucial abilities that can affect performance in variety of sport. These abilities are related and depend in large part on the athlete´s muscular strength.”(Bompa & Haff, 2009, p. 315).

Development

To properly develop this work on speed and agility comes to mind first defines two terms, I will begin by defining agility that is more concrete and then we will see in detail the criteria for speed:

According to Ozolin agility is:

“The ability to quickly and seamlessly solve motor tasks, particularly those that arise unexpectedly, is like the peak of the athlete's ability to coordinate their movements. The agility is organically linked to the strength, speed, endurance and flexibility. Therefore the development of all these qualities allows improved agility.” (N.G.Ozolin, 1989, p. 326).

It seems appropriate to better understand what agility is and what is mentioned in the book from Bompa Periodization theory and methodology of training, which is considered as our textbook: “The literature indicates that agility must consider not only speed but also the ability to decelerate, change direction, and reaccelerate in response to stimuli.

Agility is a complex set of interdependent skills that converge for the athlete to respond to an external Stimulus with rapid deceleration, change of direction, and reacceleration.”(Bompa & Haff, 2009, p. 325).

For this reason the train must enter agility response exercises, sounds and varied in character, different types of situations that help the athlete to develop the ability to switch quickly from one action to another, the plasticity of the nervous system plays a key role in this regard, according to my experience it should work well in terms of speed of movement over short distances, and to demand more hurdles to learning system as each athlete recognizes different studies and are cited in his book. (Bompa & Haff, 2009, pp. 325–326).

Other highlights are mentioned frequently in the literature in general related to agility, the most important are the technical movements, changes in direction, speed sprinting actions of a leg or arm quickly executed, accelerations and decelerations , in Carrying out if proper technique and movements performed at top speed and convenience of exercise with or without attachments in training are mentioned by (Sheppard, J.M. and W.B. Young, 2006).

Muscle strength and power with the ability to sprint and according to research appears to be related with the agility to change direction and the reactive force with the ability to engage the stretch shortening cycle also appears to contribute to the athlete ability to change direction pointed on some studies like (Gambetta, T.J. J.N. kelly and  J.M Shepard, 2008), (Sheppard, J.M. and W.B. Young, 2006). In my opinion if you want to follow these principles you should develop strength using weight exercises like the clean and start Olympic, squat, bench press, round to the front, and others, combining them with plyometric jumps and ensuring overall explosive force in a reduced number to avoid fatigue, can do 3-5 reps of each underwriting year with a total of 3-5 exercises each session and 3-5 series with adequate rest between 3-5 minutes and use stretching breaks, the weight range between 60-80% of the maximum raised for the preparatory phase and less weight in the special preparation and pre-competitive, the contrast method can also be used explosive jumps alternating between weights or sprints to finish training with weights; these stimulation of different character help you get the task force and speed development linked to the development of agility, in my experience that matches suggested by literature in general.

Speed

Speed is the capacity to travel or move very quickly...it may mean the whole body moving at maximal running speed, as in the sprinter...it may include the speed of a limb, such as the throwing arm in the shot or discus, or the take-off leg in the jumps. Speed includes the fallowing types that it mentioned on the IAAF book; this material also explains different kinds of speed classification like the following:

“Maximal speed. -As fast you can-may involve the whole body or limb Optimal speed. -Controlled speed in the approach to a jump, making a throw or the best average speed for whatever distance you are walking or running Acceleration speed -The rate of change in speed Reaction time -The time between a stimulus and the first movement of the athlete. Include the reaction to the gun in the crouch start but also to how quickly an athlete responds to something in an event Speed endurance -The ability to continue to express the either maximal or optimal speed as fatigue level increase” (J L Thompson, 2009, p. 99).

But what are the main factors that influence to develop speed in younger athletes and at what time is better to pick up this development?

Growth, development, and maturation are terms used to describe changes that occur in the body starting at conception and continuing through adulthood...The period of life from birth to the stars adulthood is generally divided into three phases: Infancy, childhood, and adolescence. Infancy is defined as the first year of life. Childhood spans the period of time between the end of infancy (the first birthday) and the beginning of adolescence...the period of adolescence is more difficult to define in chronological years. (Wilmore, Costill, & Kenney, 2008, p. 384).

As children grow, they develop better balance; agility and coordination as their nervous system develop. Myelination of the nerve fibres must be completed before fast reactions and skilled movement can occur because conduction of an impulse along a nerve fibre is considerably slower if myelination is absent or incomplete...Myelination of cerebral cortex occur most rapidly during childhood but continues well beyond puberty. Although practicing an activity or skill can improve performance to a certain extent, the full development of that activity or skill depends on full maturation (and myelination) of the nervous system. The development of strength is also likely influence by myelination (Wilmore et al., 2008, pp. 386–387).

Many literature refer  to the importance of maturation of the nervous system, and follow the windows of opportunity for development of speed and other fitness or capabilities,  especially IAAF book mentioned the first speed window is also relate to the development of the nervous system and its ability to now carry messages much more quickly (J L Thompson, 2009, p. 100) as we can see this idea is on the same way, and relating with maturations, my opinion is in  the same way.

Testosterone has a number of effects in the body. Testosterone promotes muscles development and this is well known by most coaches. But it also has effects on the energy systems. Testosterone promotes an increase in the number of red blood cells which are responsible for transporting oxygen around the body and to exercising muscles. It also crease the efficiency of the mitochondria the parts of the muscle cells were oxygen is use to make energy... (J L Thompson, 2009, p. 49).

The required motor qualities should be trained in the most appropriate mode of muscle contraction for these particular qualities. Quite often, a combination of two different goals may lead to the opposite changes and decrease the effect of training. For example, in order to increase the rapid strength, small weights are used for training, which allows the athlete to move at a high speed and at a high rate. However, this approach is ineffective for gaining muscle hypertrophy, which needs movements at a low speed, accompanied by a significant acidification of muscles and increased levels of anabolic hormones and growth factors in the blood.

On the other hand, using large weights, which facilitates muscle hypertrophy, is ineffective in the development of motor skills, since the high intensity training exercise does not allow the total number of movements to be enough for effective motor training. Thus, the training protocol that is effective for increasing the muscle mass may not provide the specificity of training effects; and a protocol aimed at improving the mechanisms of inter and intramuscular coordination, may be ineffective for increasing the muscle mass.

The solution of this problem could consist in the subsequent implementation of training procedures to ensure training of central and peripheral units of the motor system. This task is urgent in sports in which the result depends on special strength abilities, and, at the same time, there are weight restrictions due to the requirements of weight categories, according to (Markovic & Mikulic, 2010, pp. 1–2) I agree about, because strength is important to develop speed and agility, but coaches should found correct program for individual and their needs.

Main factors affecting the development of speed and agility.

1.-Influence of the nervous system: Since we know the nervous system consists of billions of nerve cells, they have anatomical structure divided in the cell body, dendrites and axon cylinder axis, in the anatomy of the motor-neurons the axon is covered with pods myelin that speed the transmission of nerve impulses, there are three types of neurons, the sensory neuron they collect information, interneurons mediate between them and the engine afferent, motor neurons that have character and carry nerve impulses direct to the muscles or effectors ports;  in all types are present the mechanism of transmission of nerve impulses through the synapsis point and used mechanism known as sodium potassium pump, in this process neurotransmitters are involved. There are more than 60 neurotransmitters at the synapsis point, the number of them and the quality of their work can be improved with training and speed training  this developed adaptation if needed more speed in the action of  sodium potassium pump, this perfect functioning and quality of their transmissions, making this process faster according expresses and summarizes the chapter on the nervous system (Farrell, Joyner, Caiozzo, & American College of Sports Medicine, 2012). On my opinion very important to understand, this process for training and development of this fitnes.


Fig. 2 (Einar Einarsson, 2013).

In my experiences this is a known process and is present in how fast they can run motor actions and influences both the speed and agility. The transmission of impulses is not a new concept and has been quoted by a lot of literature, among the highest current literature addressing this scientific aspect recently today, we mention here the following: (Farrell et al., 2012), (Haibach, Reid, & Collier, 2011), (Wilmore et al., 2008).

As shown in the following illustration, each cell type has a specific structure and efferent motor- neurons constitutions axon shaft or cylinder is ready to transmit faster and otherwise ensure neurotransmitters, transmissions and downloads potentials action faster to adjust the quantity and quality of operation see picture below:


Fig. 3  (Einar Einarsson, 2013).

“In the study of any physiology systems, the nervous system largely defines the quality and degree of perfection of a movement, as well as how it adapts to repetitive movements and training.”(Farrell et al., 2012, p. 37).

 On the executing task some factors that help to develop actions could be present, for example, series of action potentials to specific motor neurons, hypertrophy, increased motor unit recruitment, increased fatigue with higher frequency of excitation; to deliver more this criterion collation quote directly from a great book the following opinion:

“From neural perspective, the force and displacement generated by a given muscle are functions of the numbers of fibers recruited within the muscle that are in series or in parallel, respectively, and the number of motor units recruited for each of the motor pools involved in the movement.” (Farrell et al., 2012, p. 39).

Analyzing literature these approaches have to think that the training for speed and agility should include rapid and repetitive movements demanding greater and adequate motor unit recruitment and muscle fibers that make lasting, requiring the neuromuscular system adaptations, to detain a greater number of fibers with strength training and explosive strength that will help develop speed and agility, also recovery need to restore energy sources and be on better conditions for next repetition.

Other facts pointed here are, long term neuronal influences and fatigue we will see energy systems influence later, ATP synthesis and other enrgy sources, mitochondrial content activations oxigen; some literature mention the amount of force genarated by a muscle at any particular instant is largely a function of the numbers of motor units activated, the frecuency at wich these motor units are activated and the total cross-sectional area of all of the muscles fibres controlled by those motor units, it is related with cross re-innervation phenomenon  that can be improved by training proccess individualized and variational to get a proper recruit, size principle  of recruitment of motor pool and other facts like motor units tipe of fibers, some of this fact mentioned on (Farrell et al., 2012, pp. 39–44). All these conceptions made me to think on training of power, plyometrics, and variational speed with diferents methods that we will see donw on this paper.


Fig. 4 (Einar Einarsson, 2013)

It is also very important training exercises varied as different races with change of pace, agility drills with hurdles, changing career direction, zigzag movements, movements quick releases to develop speed in the arms, and teach motor skills varied, this favors plasticity of body systems better adapted to new situations and improves speed; it is very interesting the criteria on the mechanisms of spindle muscle on neuromuscular junction and Golgi mechanism on tendons and ligaments, to propitiate real and good stiffness.

2.-Type of fiber and recruit  fo motor units:

The fiber type theories are cited by many studies I will look at this afterwards, Type of fiber FF, FR, Slow (S) are well represented on next picture,  I prefer to illustrate with this very special picture take from the same book, because it is clear and coaches can see well and easy that we can help our athletes to improve hypertrophic at the begening of preparation, and develop posible recruit motor units also withow create hypertrophy with good training sessions, movement faster, good recovery and related with tecnique for competition, training like compete:


Fig. 5 (Farrell et al., 2012, p. 40).

“Although a larger number of parameter  are highly correlated with motor unit recruitment order, the amount of force that a motor unit can generate is one of the most consistent to date.” (Farrell et al., 2012, p. 44).

The interpretation of these postulates suggest the need for strength training and speed unleash strong action potentials more Display Units recruiter able motor and more fast twitch and even transform other types of fast twitch fibers, the literature mentions IIb, and IIx that can be changed on IIb operation, secondly mentioned satellite cell recruitment that would help better adaptation to speed loads.

Training between 75-85% to stimulate the recruitment strength, and fatigue also producing these types of workouts stimulate the SCN and better prepared to resist fatigue, stimulates the production of ATP to be discussed later, are created new possibilities in the cellular mitochondria, cross innervation is accentuated, the CNS redirects muscle size and speed of restoration to fatigue a number of adjustments are recorded with speed and agility training, including learning and creating new nerve connections as already mentioned above especially creation automatism spinal cord level without needing to intervene directly consciousness, this saves energy and improves learning plasticity for agility according to my experiences.

“In this context, it is logical to think of the spinal cord as interpreting the total ensemble of afferent information at any given time, as opposed to receiving input from each receptor in stereotypically reflex manner.” (Farrell et al., 2012, p. 55). To reinforce and clarify this pointed fact: “There is strong element of automaticity in the neural control of movements, both from the brain and spinal cord.” (Farrell et al., 2012, p. 65).

Some studies mention also coach has to be careful when developed endurance and don´t use too much because can change type of fiber to type I, see below. “Prolonged endurance training usually induces a shift from Type II to Type I fiber composition (e.g., IIx or IIb = IIa = I), which is disadvantageous for sprinting performance.” (Trappe, S., M.Harber, A. Creer, P.Gallagher, D.Slivka, 2006). This proposition means better train short and fast with good recovery, to get real speed and agility, because the relationship between power, and sprint performance it is also good to train on this area specially plyometric jumps, and weight lifting sessions not heavy but fast and short repetitions with good recovery between sets.                                

3. - Other factors affecting the expression of speed:

To develop speed, the coach and athlete must understand the factors that affect one´s ability to generate high movement speeds. Sprinting ability is affected by several physiological and performance factors, the energy systems theory, related with fatigue is one of the more important. 

Fatigue is: “A condition in which there is a lost in the capacity for developing force and/or velocity of a muscle, resulting from muscle activity under load which is reversible by rest.” (Farrell et al., 2012, p. 171).

It is clear therefore that the etiology of the word fatigue is a major issue in that it shows that a lack or loss of strength, speed and power execute motor actions provides serious limitations to the muscle and the body in general to achieve performance, this depends on the age of the person, the state of development of the physical fitnes, fiber types that make up the muscles involved in the exercise or motor actions, nutritional status, and intensity, the character duration y exercises are made in this incident energy systems. All factors are related with peripheral fatigue (energy systems) for muscles, and central fatigue CNS central fatigue. A summary some of the most important factors in the fatigue process:

  1. “Excitatory input to higher motor centers.
  2. Excitatory drive to lowers motor neurons.
  3. Motor neurons excitability.
  4. Neuromuscular transmissions.
  5. Sarcolemma excitability.
  6. Excitation-contraction (E-C) coupling.
  7. Contractile mechanisms.
  8. Metabolic energy supply and metabolite accumulate.” (Farrell et al., 2012, p. 172).

Even when the athlete is able to keep moving at high speed, the process of fatigue begins to affect the output of power and the ability to switch mechanisms and manifestation of the speed this has been explained in his work by a leading specialist (Plisk, S.S., 2008). The fatigue generated by the appearance of lactic acid during periods of maximum speed is related to the system work buffer of the blood and increased the accumulation of hydrogen molecules  which reduce the ability of the athlete to proceeding with the maximum effort, but is conductive to training adaptation mechanisms that increase the possibility of continuing to work in better condition now known that performing interval sprints with pauses are good programs that help reduce fatigue and improve the systems buffer of muscles. (Stackhouse, S.K., 2001). Other studies pointed similar opinion related training methods, like (Laursen, P.B. and D.G. Jenkins, 2002).

The application of appropriate methods for developing speed in conjunction with a periodized training plan can improve acceleration, top speed and maintaining the highest travel speed and improve competition results as posed by (Moir G., R. Sanders, C ., 2007).

The sprint contains a quick release and energy use and rapid renewal of repetitive production and substrates; this requires training leading to a correct adaptation after alternation of the enzymatic activity of this body will allow a better adaptation to the muscular growing accumulation of fatigue and induction of metabolic processes on this postulate coincidence with  (Ross, A and M Leveritt, 2001) and on my opinion it is real fact, affecting training process.

Other fact to have into consideration I think is related with opinion of different studies as we can see here: “An increase in muscular strength without noticeable hypertrophy is the first line of evidence for neural involvement in acquisition of muscular strength.”(Gabriel, Kamen, & Frost, 2006, p. 1).

I agree with this approach because it is sometimes better to express the speed and explosiveness in terms of a lower body weight and with proper use of the work of the nervous system and its relationship to the muscular system. “ If neural adaptations to resistive exercise have a motor learning component, then findings from this body of literature should be taken into consideration when prescribing training programmes.” (Gabriel et al., 2006, p. 10).

This approach is in line with the learning of different motor actions that will allow a better demonstration of plasticity and speed in changing conditions and therefore help improve agility. And as noted below thirst relevant work force once again in direct relation to the improvement of sprint and agility

“Both typical force–velocity relationships and mechanical parabolic curves between power and velocity increased after the strength training program. Leg and thigh muscle volume and CSA of RTG remained unchanged after strength training. Back half squat exercises, including adapted heavy loads and only 2 training session per week, improve athletic performance” (Chelly et al., 2009, p. 2241).

Training methods for improving sprint performance have typically include general (which aim for hypertrophy and neuronal activation), velocity specific (speed and strength) strength training. In an investigation into 2 types of training programs, it was observed that high resistance training resulted in an improve initial acceleration phase. Whereas high-velocity training resulted in an improve initial acceleration and maximum speed  (Deane, Chow, Tillman, & Fournier, 2005, p. 615). Look very special next sentences that I prefer make direct citation because of the importance for sprint:

“As Schofield explained it, there are two types of ways to do speed training. In assisted speed training, devices like bungee cords help runners move faster. First the runners pull back and put tension on the cords, and then they run forward with the cords helping them accelerate. That ultimately helps them better accelerate on their own. Parachutes are in the category of resisted speed training, which involves slowing the runner. "You have to recruit more muscle fibres in your body in order to run because you have something holding you back," Schofield said.” (Mowatt, 2004, p. 1).

This way  is good to use when development is stopped and we need new stimulations to improve speed I think, because some time the automatism create by training can stop develop and it is necessary go to next step creating new sensation that challenge the neuromuscular system and enzymatic productions on body.

After looking carefully the literature I decide to resume the main ideas to develop the speed as IAAF describes it is the way I have been used most of the time; training involves development of skill so that the technique is performed at a faster rate. To develop speed the skill must be practised on a regular basis at maximum or close to maximum rate of movement. Maximal running speed, for example, is developed by runs over short distances at maximum effort. Perhaps the foundation exercise for developing maximal speed is the “flying 30s„ Which are maximal sprints over 10m, 20m, 30, or even 40meters...The skill of moving at speed should, like all skills, be practice before the athlete be fatigued. For this reason recovery times between repetitions and sets should be long enough to recover from any fatigue. In the case of this exercise which emphasises the ATP-CP energy system there should be recoveries of 2 min- 3 min between repetitions and at least 5 mints -8 mints between sets...If the athlete is young or has a low training age,  may be capable to “Flying 10” where the “maximal speed zone” is just 10 meters long. But the acceleration zone should still be up 30m.They can develop to “flying 20m” (J L Thompson, 2009, pp. 100–101).

If the athlete still on improvement during the session we should continue repetition other way if they don’t show good result and fatigue is arrive is good to stop, and change to other activities, all this methodological point are valid, and on my experiences I use on my training system also approach to develop speed and agility.


Fig. 6 (Þráinn Hafsteinsson, 2013).

Factors affecting the expression of speed are summarized in a book textually as a physiological and performance factors, like energy systems, enzymatic activity, phosphates and glycolytic systems predominant, contribution of oxidative systems, (ATP-PC), creatine phosphokinase (CPK) the increase of Myokinase (MK) during training it is important for printers, and  glycogen phosphorylase (PHOS), is also important lactate mechanism developed for training action, studies mention neurals factor as I pointed before,  Energy substrate storage, and preparation of the body to keep working on fatigue inducing metabolites, all around summarize by. (Bompa & Haff, 2009, pp. 317–321).

All three of the body´s energy system phosphate, glycolytic, and oxidative are working more or less on energy supply during training or competition; I mean nothing is pure about one system alone providing energy because the body is one and systems has to work together.

The use of energy systems depend on duration of exercise, numbers of  meter running, numbers of repetitions and recovery on training or competition, Phosphagen systems( ATP-PC) storages can be reduced because repetition and duration of training, this can be breakdown for accumulation of  creatine phosphokinase (CPK) and increase MK. (Bompa & Haff, 2009, p. 317). “Several key enzymes associate with glycolytic System are also affected by variations forms of print training.” (Ross, A and M Leveritt, 2001).

Accumulation of lactate for long sprint, or elevate Hydrogen concentration H+, a decrease in Ca+, are facts that challenge adaptation, about enzymatic activity as have been mentioned by for literature and may affect sodium potassium pump fast functioning. “The enzymatic alterations stimulated by sprint training may play an integral role in facilitating rapid muscular contraction by allowing a faster ATP supply from the glycolytic systems.” (Bompa & Haff, 2009, p. 318).

All Reviewing the literature and raised in recent research we realized that thanks to training and adaptation law may be changes in buffer systems in operation and improvement of the sodium pump potash, in which calcium exerts important function on tissue level, however be considered in this opinion that the whole body of work all energy systems to a greater or lesser extent and therefore all are important, which means that in practice we must encourage them all, see graph below.


Fig. 7. (Bompa & Haff, 2009, p. 26).Relationship between time and anaerobic and aerobic energy supply.

As you can see the development of the speed and agility is complex, in fact coaches should think on multiple phenomena at the time to build programs to develop this capabilities and also skills to do better on competitions.

(Speed ​​is dependent on another dynamic characteristics especially power, as well as neurological function, elasticity and muscle relaxation skills, coordination and technical skills in the sport).”(Þráinn Hafsteinsson, 2013).

When considering the development of speed, several principles must considerate also for agility development: Quality over quantity, is mention specially the idea to maximize training effects, speed training need to be meticulously dosed and incorporate low training volumes with long periods of restoration it will help the body systems to recovery better and continually working at high quality and high level of speed it is mentioned by (Bompa & Haff, 2009, p. 328), also very important the expression pointed that use of excessive of speed activities will eventually result in over training. It is not wise to perform sprint and agility training under condition of excessive fatigue or with excessively short rest interval, I was pointed before and it is coincidence with (Plisk, S.S., 2008).

Other fact mentioned here is the intention to do proper technique at all the times, to develop appropriate movement patterns the coach must emphasize proper technique in all training activities, adequate and correct technique drills help better stabilize the development of these skills, with appropriate movements may help develop perfect stimulation to challenge motor units neuromuscular system, for this reason it is suggested to use the heating for this purpose, if fatigue then can decrease the load on the main part of the training session, according raises (Bompa & Haff, 2009, pp. 328–329) perfect technique must also be present on weight lifting and plyometric exercises, to keep working the exactly neuromuscular systems related with action for competition on my opinion.

Specificity of the development of speed and agility, as mentioned in the development of work but worth repeating for pedagogical reasons and for better understanding of the project, which develops when the speed and agility of the athlete must work related technical movements their specific sport, in practice it is also suggested to consider bio-energy systems and the incidence of breaks and work in planning sessions for this capacity development, in my experience it should start in the main part when the body is fresh and in better condition to face this kind of work;  very interesting ideas in the book that match these criteria (Bompa & Haff, 2009, p. 329).

It is important to give to athletes the objective and subjective feedback  information through the training process, the feedback objectives include time reports made​​, and executed technical quality, sample videos and analysis of these, while the subjective feedback may include concept of perception of speed on, listening to sounds of the step rate may be an objective feedback performed compared against time, with suitable novice athletes consistently offer feedback, in the early stages of preparation are very positive but fixes with positive character and stimulation and as the mature athlete that happens to take second place and it is less important, I agree with the literature (Dick, F.W., 1997), (Plisk, S.S., 2008).

In my opinion other interesting fact is related with motivation; about this I quoted her direct citation: “To develop speed or agility, the athlete must be highly motivated” (Dick, F.W., 1997). Athletes keep working harder the training of these capabilities because fatigue is present; according to this proposition see next pointed quotation. …a motivated athlete is more likely to tolerate this type of training. Motivation can be cultivated by providing feedback, especially feedback that emphasizes the positive aspects of the athlete´s training, and by including the athlete in the planning process. If the plan is implemented correctly, the athlete will be more likely to push herself to higher levels.”(Bompa & Haff, 2009, p. 330).

4.-Variables associated with training for speed:

Many literature has been mentioned by Bomba & Haff,  2009 related with this problem, one is density of training , Interestingly, the reference to the amount of reps, sets, rest between sets and between sets, and the types of exercises and the amount of them in total, on the other hand refers to the duration of the exercises and the distances to travel and note that this can be measured in meters for better control, and decision or timing in each section as we offer travel information, short distances better activate the phosphagen system and suggests to develop sprint acceleration, with distances between 10-20m, while for pure speed suggest between 20 and 80 meters in the case of low-skilled young athletes recommended sections will be between 20-30m all is well pointed and summarized by (Bompa & Haff, 2009, p. 330).

I agree with these previous approaches, in fact in my training classes for these capabilities include torn or departures from the starting blocks, in 10m, 20m with breaks of 2-3 minutes two to three torn in each session, three times a week and development pure speed with lengths between 30-60 meters and rest for 3 to 5 minutes between flights, can do 3-4 flights in each series especially changing, and not repeating the same distance and 6-10 minutes rest between sets to repeat series similar or different in the case of young athletes usually train a single series.

Related with the exercise order using on the sessions, it is very important to look next sentences:

“The exercise order is the sequence in which specific training task are performed” (Plisk, S.S., 2008).

In order to keep the development of speed and agility in the body appropriate ranges should be fresh, and should avoid fatigue as mentioned before, in my experience this is essential for the quality of the actions taken, we must remember that the development and improvement of these capabilities is a complex scientific problem of character that relates to the learning and development of automatic nervous system level and stimulation of motor units in neuromuscular system to do this as already need has arisen to challenge and change the enzymatic systems, and biological energy used in each repetition should be restored with proper rest then see what planted by research.

“Because sprint and agility training activities impose large metabolic, neuromuscular, and coordinative demands, they should be conducted when the athlete has the minimal level of fatigue.”(Bompa & Haff, 2009, p. 331).

“The activities are best undertaken after dynamic warm up that primes that athlete for the training bout and before more fatiguing bouts of training are undertaken.” (Plisk, S.S., 2008), (Kurz,T., 2001).

Training is recommended for this type of work are performed after a day of recovery or after light loads to maximize profits when the athlete is under less fatigue as reference take from the ideas of (Kurz,T., 2001), I agree on this principle especially for this workloads capabilities such speed and agility I made on alternate days and at the start of the main part of my work out on the day training session, sometimes tending to give a massage before, or the day before the session as this helps my athlete be better able to receive loads, the repetition method and good recovery pauses used like literature recommend.

Other factors are mentioned by studies like Intensity should be maximal or nearly to maximal, good proposition is expressed on table 12.2 of text book, and idea to calculate intensity as you can see also training zone intensity for sprint training are classify by zones from 6 to 1 on table 12.3 but I believe times are based on 200m not on 100m like it is expressed on (Bompa & Haff, 2009, pp. 331–332), on my opinion challenge for speed on preparation should be on zone 4, and special preparation zone 5,  precompetitive and competitive phase it is better be on zone 6 but shorter, remember low load and high intensity, this match with periodization principle we as a coach must have present all times. 

Considerate rest intervals are also very important, about this fact we have mention very times before relationship with recovery and energy sources, longer pauses are better for replenishment of stored phosphagens and allow for expression of maximal power output. Short recovery go direct to endurance and are better used when targeting the oxidative system aerobic as have been mentioned by some studies and summarized on (Bompa & Haff, 2009, pp. 332–333).

To well represent next topic that I will point here I think is good to illustrated with following figure this is an excellent representation of the character of the rest and alternating loads on micro-cycles near the competition where the main character's alternate work, reducing the volume and increasing intensity, on alternate days, note also like load volume and intensity are decreasing in the last week before the competition to promote better adjustment and increase energy reserves before the main competition.


Fig. 8 (Bompa & Haff, 2009, p. 155).

Sequenced training strategies. In studying the literature on this particular issue, I've noticed that there are many factors that can contribute to the generation of the sequence example fatigue loads within the micro-cycle, allowing proper alternation resting loads or light loads before charges for speed and agility, the location of the exercises in the training unit and breaks, the training segments in the day, which can be separated or divided into two sessions using the morning session for these capabilities to be the organism rest and be better able to absorb the loads are suggested at least four hours of rest between sessions when thus organized (Kurz,T., 2001), according to recent studies an appropriate strategy is to use blocks or training sequences well defined: (Issurin, V., 2008), (Plisk, S.S., 2008), see table 12.4 next on this material.


Fig. 9 (Bompa & Haff, 2009, p. 333).

Finally I find an  interesting point that must be taken into consideration training intensity values​​, cargo of training volume and intensity, and design the annual training plans should consider the possibility of predicting the volume and intensity integrating them with the endurance alternating burdens, for that reason it seems better to use the block design preparation as suggested above especially for elite athletes as it prevents errors and helps a concentrated load types in favor of better processes and adaptation to other kinds of charges as shown in the table 12.4 above and summarized recent research related to the topic in question.                                        

Conclusions:

The development of speed and agility is directly linked to nervous system factors and mechanisms of transmission of nerve impulses for neuronal cells and functional structures, the terms in the system and processes neuromuscular stimulation should note to make plans and training programs for the development of these capabilities.

One of the most-reviewed literatures is related to muscle fiber type and target practice these are changed to a fast fiber can directly drive best suited to express the speed of contraction in order to foster better speed and agility.

The phenomenon of onset of fatigue is analyzed from many points of view, the energy factor, and enzymatic changes that occur in the body training product allow better adaptation to the human body well-proportioned and planned loads for systems in generally better able to meet the speed and agility demonstration in front to fatigue and better exploit natural sources of energy production when needed in competitions, are present in this process of adaptation laws, and we must consider the proper relationship and alternating between work and rest to avoid overtraining.

“Because sprint and agility training activities impose large metabolic, neuromuscular, and coordinative demands, they should be conducted when the athlete has the minimal level of fatigue.”(Bompa & Haff, 2009, p. 331).

The paper offers concrete suggestions to take into consideration to develop these capabilities, the most important are planning to start the training session loads for better development, shifting in micro-days during the cycle, so that the body is better able to work properly and receive stimuli, motivation should consider the use of feedback, the density of charges, the proper intensity, the different types of training, the development of strength, encouragement to direct muscle stimulation and learning conducive accelerations, decelerations, changes of pace, and other important phenomena related to the speed and agility in their links to the neuromuscular system. We also had the flexibility and ligament tensions linked to the facts of the mechanism of Golgi and muscles spindle functioning.

Finally strategies discussed training sequences which can be used in the annual preparation and their location in the macro-cycle and are referred to as block planning novel aspect of the present sports science for the preparation of these qualities and its relationship with the strength development proposed in elite athletes exclusively. I have worked with the current literature generally considered as the most recent main text (Bompa & Haff, 2009).

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Cita en Rev Entren Deport

Alberto Borges Moreno (2014). Speed and Agility Development and Theory. Rev Entren Deport. 28 (1).
https://g-se.com/speed-and-agility-development-and-theory-1682-sa-e57cfb27240714

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